How Your Body’s Microbiomes Affect Addiction

October 8, 2020

How Your Body’s Microbiomes Affect Addiction

The study of microbiomes, such as gut bacteria, is a fascinating new look into how our health and wellbeing can be affected by the tiny passengers that live in our bodies. Much like the outside environment, our microorganisms need to find a healthy balance that creates a sustainable internal ecosystem. When there is an imbalance or disruption to this system, there can be a wide variety of consequences to our mental, physical, and emotional health. Since we know that addiction often has root causes that stem from imbalances like anxiety and depression, it begs the question: can/how do these microbiomes affect the varying stages of addiction and recovery?

What is a Microbiome?

To best understand how these microorganisms can affect our health and wellbeing, we must first understand their nature. A microbiome is a community of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, etc.) that inhabit a particular organism or ecosystem.Where can you find these microscopic communities?

  • Humans
  • Animals
  • Plants
  • Soil
  • Oceans
  • The atmosphere
  • Most types of tissues and biofluid

Almost every place on Earth has some type of microbiome community that is an integral part of the greater ecosystem.

Why Now?

Recent advances in science and medical technology have allowed us to more easily observe, track, test, and document these microorganisms. The results have been a revelation in the scientific and medical communities, helping us to further unlock some of our body’s hidden mechanisms. Instead of just researching a single microorganism, we can now better research and understand how these tiny players systematically affect nearly every aspect of our inner and outer world.

How Microorganisms Affect Our Health and Wellbeing

Our human microbiome is a combination of trillions of microbes living inside and outside of our bodies. There are over one thousand different bacterial species that live in our mouth, gut, skin, etc. These microorganisms and the genes they express, combine to make us a “superorganism”, meaning that we are composed of both human and microbial cells. It’s estimated that one person’s microbiome may include as many as 8,000,000 genes in addition to the 20,000 to 25,000 that our genome is estimated to contain.(1)

Scientific Studies

Gut Flora and Depression

While we know there is a strong connection between depression and addiction, we can go even further to discover some of the physiological causes of depression. By understanding these connections, we can help to prevent/treat depression and addiction.A 2017 research study(2) by Pinto-Sanchez and colleagues explored the impact of a specific microbiome in regards to anxiety and depression. To better understand the connection, they researched Bifidobacterium longum (BL), a microaerotolerant anaerobe that is thought to be among the first microorganism colonizers of the human gastrointestinal tract. This anaerobe is considered an essential part of human gut flora due to its production of lactic acid. A healthy balance of lactic acid is believed to help prevent the growth of pathogenic organisms.

The Experiment

Using a controlled study, subjects with IBS, with concurrent anxiety and/or depression, were given a BL probiotic that would help to restore the missing microorganisms and increase the production of lactic acid. After 10 weeks of treatment, researchers were able to note a statistically significant reduction of depression.

Gut Biomes and Opioid Addiction

In a 2020 study(3), scientists found evidence that gut microbiome health can influence the pattern of activation in a rat's brain during opioid addiction and withdrawal.

The Experiment

Researchers were interested in seeing how the use of antibiotics could be connected to drug abuse and addiction. Antibiotics help to protect us from harmful bacteria, however, these medications can also damage the symbiotic bacteria that live in our bodies.Some of the test rats were given antibiotics that depleted 80% of their gut microbes. While all of the rats became dependent on the prescription opioid pain reliever oxycodone, it was when the researchers autopsied the rats’ brains that they found a breakthrough. The normal pattern of neuron pathing to different parts of the brain, during intoxication and withdrawal, was unsettled in the subjects that had been treated with antibiotics. Rats with damaged gut biomes had more active neurons in the areas of the brain that regulate stress and pain.Ultimately, the team was able to conclude that gut microbes alter the way the brain responds to drugs. These changes in brain patterns could ultimately affect our overall behavior. In this instance, researchers noted that the decrease in neurons, recruited in the central amygdala, could lead to fewer withdrawal symptoms, leading to a higher risk of drug abuse.

Respecting our Microbiomes

Since we are now beginning to understand the essential role that microbiomes play in our health and wellbeing, we have to ask ourselves how we can best protect and promote the symbiotic organisms that share our body and environment.Here are some things ways that we can improve our gut health:

  • Regular Exercise - Exercise reduces the risk of obesity, which has been linked(4) to diminished gut health
  • Take Probiotics - These supplements can come in pill or powder form and have been shown to drastically improve gut health when properly administered. You should generally consult a medical professional to help you find the best probiotics for your dietary needs
  • Fermented Foods - A reliable source of probiotics, these foods are a natural way to support your gut biome:
  • Fermented Vegetables
  • Kombucha
  • Kimchi
  • Tempeh
  • Sauerkraut
  • Avoid Smoking - Studies(5) have shown that smoking can have an adverse effect on gut flora by promoting bad microorganisms and hurting helpful ones
  • Avoid Processed Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners - Some of our harmful stomach bacterias feed on these additives and can throw off your gut’s healthy balance if they are allowed to overtake your stomach’s microbiome
  • Mitigate Stress - Psychological stress has been shown to disrupt the microorganisms in your gut, creating an imbalance in your micro-ecosystem
  • Avoid Unnecessary Antibiotics - As we explored earlier in the article, antibiotics can kill the helpful bacteria in your body, leaving you with an incomplete microbiome, ultimately causing a variety of harmful effects to your overall well being
  • Eat Prebiotic Fiber - Probiotics need sustenance too. These foods will help your probiotics thrive and do their job:
  • Onions
  • Bananas
  • Whole Grains
  • Garlic
  • Asparagus

Learn More About Addiction Help and Resources

If you would like to learn more about how microbiomes can impact your body or if you want to learn more ways to combat drug abuse and addiction, please reach out to our friendly and knowledgeable team. We can help get you on the path to healthy, sustainable recovery!

Sources

  1. https://www.kavlifoundation.org/about-microbiome
  2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28483500/
  3. https://www.eneuro.org/content/7/3/ENEURO.0312-19.2020
  4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25021423/
  5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29626219/

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